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Banking on receipts and political declarations: Perceived tenure security and housing investments in Luanda, Angola


Year published: 2023
Categories: Journal Article
URL Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2023.102866

Author / Authors:

  • Singumbe Muyeba


Habitat International,

Volume 138, 2023, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2023.102866.


This paper examines the effects of formal housing delivery receipts and political pronouncements on perception of tenure security and housing investments within the context of Angola's post-conflict rebuilding and weak institutions for protection of property rights. The paper investigates Zango 1 residents who were supplied with social housing and delivery receipts called guia de entrega in 2005 following their forced eviction from Boa Vista in 2001. It uses a control group of residents of Paraiso informal settlement, some of whom fought the eviction in Boa Vista and ended up being incorporated in Paraiso. Paraiso began to be settled after an impromptu speech by the governor of Luanda in 2000. A survey (n = 634) was conducted, and propensity score matching and satellite imagery employed. Results show that perception of tenure security is higher among Zango 1 households, and investments are substantial, but Paraiso households also have high tenure security and the same dwelling area. The political pronouncement of political leaders and use of durable materials by households in unregularized subdivisions can confer high perception of tenure security and influence decisions for housing investments even in the presence of weak institutions.

Keywords: Slums, Property rights, Perceived tenure security, Housing investments, Propensity score matching, Post-conflict rebuilding


  • Journal Article