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Urban Form and Access to Public Transport in Accra, Ghana


Year published: 2022
Categories: Book Chapter
URL Link: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-17327-1_3

Author / Authors:

  • Ransford A. Acheampong
  • Stephen Boahen Asabere
  • Augustine Yaw Asuah


Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)


Major cities in Africa have experienced fast-paced expansion in their physical size as a result of rapid levels of urbanization. The emergent urban forms have fundamental influence on the spatial distribution of activities and the levels of access that the growing urban population can have to opportunities, such as jobs and social amenities. A key determinant of connectivity to opportunities and valued destinations in any urban context is access to public transport. This chapter analyses public transport access in the Accra city-region, a contiguous conurbation comprising Accra, Ghana’s capital city and the surrounding peri-urban settlements. In order to show the prevailing urban form and understand the role of accessibility in shaping urban expansion patterns, the relationship between the region’s observable built-up land as of 2021 and the existing primary road infrastructure is examined and quantified. Within this urban structural context, the analysis also examines differential walking time access to public transport service routes for both paratransit and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), as well as public transport stops across the city-region. Ultimately, a huge accessibility deficit with respect to the public transport system is revealed. The chapter highlights the need for an integrated, accessibility-oriented paradigm to land use and transport planning that prioritizes urban growth management as well as public transport and non-motorized transport infrastructure development. This is vital in creating healthy, inclusive and environmentally sustainable urban futures.

Urban form,
Public transport,
Accra city-region,


  • Book Chapter